Kurhn's Theory Of Science And Technology

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Science and technology is always changing rapidly. Scientists are always going outside of the box to try to create new technologies and better ways of thinking to further how people perceive ideas. Sergio Sismondo states that “Neither science nor technology is a natural kind, having simple properties that define it once and for all. The sources of knowledge and artifacts are complex and various: there is no privileged scientific method that can translate nature into knowledge, and no technological method that can translate knowledge into artifacts” (p. 11). Through this, Sismondo is stating that there is nothing written in stone when it comes to sciences and technology and how it can help people understand the world better. Because there …show more content…
Normal science is when all the scientists share a common sense of past achievements in a field and believe that the theories are correct; in other words what we call a paradigm or model. A paradigm sets standards for scientists to follow. The book states on page 14, that a paradigm creates a theoretical framework for models of good research and it helps set the path for future ideas. Kuhn stats that problems are to be solved within the terms of the paradigm and failure to do so means that the researchers work is inaccurate. Kuhn’s main argument is that research does not follow a normal linear flow, but regresses backwards when a new idea is introduced then slowly progresses ahead of the previous achievements to go backwards again when new information is under covered about a specific field. Kuhn states that people and their observations are shaped by the paradigm that they work with. This is stating that because someone works with a paradigm, their views are centered around what may be true to one person may not be true to the next person. This view is called the theory-dependence of observation. This is the theory of how observations are shaped by what people believe in. Kuhn states that people should be flexible with how others think. Boundary objects are the idea of things that can allow other fields to cooperate. Boundary objects allow all fields to input their ideas into a language that will allow everyone …show more content…
The book explains that stratification in the sciences, happens with prestigious research institutes and with the nobel peace prize winners. It states that of the 55 nobel winners in the U.S in 1963, 34 of them had studied with other winners and had received their award 10 years earlier than their other colleagues. The book argues that productivity of people hired at more prestigious research institutes tend to be higher than those at lower research institutes. This could be because the incentive to try harder and be more productive is larger at the more prestigious companies and the payout that they will receive will be rewarding compared to other institutes. This stratification is not due to elitism, but the reward such as getting a peace prise that motivates people to be more productive at higher institutes. Discrimination is largely talked about in the field of science. Some fields seem to have a much higher discrimination towards women than others. The book says that in 2008, women earned about 49% of doctoral degrees in biology, but only about 18% in engineering. This is mostly due to cultural norms in societies as to why sciences and engineering are mainly masculine. These areas are looked on as being more masculine and therefore is less appealing to women. This is because of the stereotypes that were imposed upon us at a young age. Many teachers and peers push women to stay

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