Knee Arthroplasty Step By Step Simulation Report

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Fig. 3(a), 3(b), 3(c), 3(d), 3(e), 3(f), 3(g), 3(h) & 3(i). Knee arthroplasty step by step simulation.

The proximal tibia is shown in fig. 2(a) where the menus for adjusting the simulation is shown.

In knee arthroplasty, virtual saw is used to cut the bones in the knee from front to back. This method of cutting enable the virtual saw to penetrated tibia and then femur part of the knee. The tracker is an interface that is attached to the surgical instrument to track the position and attitude of the virtual tool. There were complex change produced in the three separate structures in the knee anatomy which were projected as 3D images. The computer system response in the simulation is shown in table 1. The time taken for the response is divided
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5. The complete simulation of knee arthroplasty.
V. CONCLUSION
In order to build a more realistic VR, further experimentation and research is required for the virtual model in this field. There is a higher efficiency seen among surgeons that has an improvement of performing knee arthroscopy surgery using the simulator. There are more specific procedures that avoid complication which gives space for improvement on performance.

Surgical simulator provides advantages of artificial experience. Although it may not be real but it provides useful practical skills that can be followed step by step. It also help surgeons to improve by learning from errors in their procedures. Next, it gives a continuous practice that increases the performance in surgical skills. However, the simulator should be updated with valid standard of curriculum. It is a training institution for those surgeons to enhance their skills. Instead of e-learning, simulators can be used for better performance. The simulator enable surgeons to have an experience of the system interface. VR simulator helps them to improve their capacity to perceive accurately the distance needed to handle their surgical
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(2015). A look to the future: teaching orthopedic surgeons. Indian Journal of Orthopaedics, 2(2), 82-83.
[14] Sourina, O., Sourin, A., & Sen, H. T. (2000). Virtual orthopedic surgery training on personal computer. International Journal of Information Technology, 6(1), 16-29.
[15] Sourin, A., Sourina, O., & Sen, H. T. (2000). Virtual orthopedic surgery training. Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, 20(3), 6-9.
[16] Székely, G., & Satava, R. M. (1999). Virtual reality in medicine. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 319(7220), 1305.
[17] Tsai, M. D., & Hsieh, M. S. (2005). Volume manipulations for simulating bone and joint surgery. Information Technology in Biomedicine, IEEE Transactions on, 9(1), 139-149.
[18] Tsai, M. D., Hsieh, M. S., & Jou, S. B. (2001). Virtual reality orthopedic surgery simulator. Computers in biology and medicine, 31(5), 333-351.
[19] Vaughan, N., Dubey, V. N., Wainwright, T. W., & Middleton, R. G. (2015). A review of virtual reality based training simulators for orthopaedic surgery.Medical engineering & physics.
[20] W. E. Lorensen and H. E. Cline, “Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm,” in Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 1987, pp.

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