Kidney Stones Research Paper

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Kidney stones are hardened mineral deposits or concretion of waste formed in the kidney. They form from an over abundance or under abundance of a urinary chemical and not enough water to dissolve all the waste products, minerals, and compounds that the kidney is trying to excrete. They can cause a blockage, which can cause extreme pain. Tennessee has the highest report of kidney stones than any other state in America. According to Alexander (2005), “Kidney stones are one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract,” (pg.348). There are a few factors that can increase the chances of forming kidney stones. Rodman, Sosa, and Seidman (2007) stated “Today one in fifteen people in the industrialized world will develop kidney stones,” (pg.5). …show more content…
Normally the first symptom is severe pain, caused by the stone blocking the urine flow. The pain is usually sudden and occurs when the stone is moving down the urinary tract causing blockage or irritation. Sharp pain in the back and side or lower abdomen is associated with stones. Sometimes the pain may descend down the groin area. Nausea and vomiting may also occur. There may be blood in the urine due to the stone moving or growing. As the stone travels downward towards the bladder a burning sensation may occur and the feeling to use the bathroom …show more content…
Alexander (2005) found, “Stone size, the number of stones, and their location are perhaps the most important factors in deciding the appropriate treatment for a patient with kidney stones,”(pg.355). Treatment for small stones may include: drinking a lot of water, taking pain medications to relieve the pain, and medical therapy which is a medicine that will help pass along the stone. Most of the time small stones do not require any invasive surgery. There are a few different treatments for larger stones. Shock wave lithrotripsy is a noninvasive way that generates a shcok wave at the stone within the kidney or ureter. The waves are transmitted in a water bath or through a water filled cushion. The repeated force of shock waves breaks the stones into very tiny pieces. A patient is usually under heavy sedation or general anesthesia. Cystine stones and Calcium oxalate monohydrate stones are resistant to this type of treatment. Ureteroscopy is another form of treatment. A ureteroscope progressing up the ureter through the bladder. It has a basketlike device at the end to grab the stone once it is visualized. General anesthesia is used for this treatment. Lastly Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is used for large stones that cannot be treated with SWL or URS. This one is performed with general anesthesia, a small 1 centimeter incision is made in the flank. A wire is then inserted with guidance into the

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