Kidney Stones Research Paper

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Kidney stones are solid stone-like masses that form within the kidney and or the ureter. These solid masses are made up of salts and minerals commonly found in urine and are due to a constant build up of substances in the kidney. Depending on the size of the stone, ranging from as small as a grain of salt to as large as a golf ball, the stone may pass out of the body during urination or may get stuck in the bladder or the urethra. When kidney stones get stuck due to their large size, they may block the flow of urine, leading to life threatening complications as well as agonizing pain.

Kidney stones form when salts such as calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate slowly precipitate in the kidney due to their high concentrations. The equilibrium

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