The Kaapvaal Craton

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The Kaapvaal Craton has a long and complex history that commenced in the Eoarchaean (>3600Ma) by a series of igneous intrusions that expands to 65Ma which is the Late Cretaceous Period. The Kaapvaal Craton’s granitoid rocks age between 3600Ma and 2500Ma (Anhaeusser, 2006). A number of supergroups overly the Kaapvaal Craton which range from oldest to youngest and include the Pongola, Witwaterstrand, Ventersdorp, and Traansvaal Supergroup (Anhaeusser, 2006). According to Sumner and Beukes (2006), the deposition of banded iron formations occur across the Kaapvaal Craton. The Kaapvaal Craton forms the basement of the Transvaal Supergroup. Filled with siliciclastic sediments and
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The basement rock of this group is granite that is nonconformably overlain by quartzite. A lava flow nonconformably overlies the quartzite and nonconformably underlies a layer of shale with interbedded conglomerates and sandstones, quartzite nonconformably overlies this. This is then nonconformably overlain by shale. The dolomite sequence that contains stromatolites conformably overlies the shale and the repetition of nonconformable successive sequences of lava, quartzite and shale occurs in chronological order in the stratigraphy (Matthews, 1967).
The boundary that separates the Nsuze-Mozaan Group in the White Mfolozi Inlier is an angular unconformity with a difference in dip of 10˚ (Matthews, 1967).
Sandstone and shale are key rock types in the Mozaan Group, which has a maximum thickness of, 1800 m within the Piet Retief-Vryheid Inlier (Tankard et al., 1982). The Mozaan Group consists of a conglomerate at its base, nonconformably overlain by quartzite. The quartzite is nonconformably overlain by an iron formation, which is conformably overlain by shale (Visser, 1989).
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