Johnson Essay examples

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CHAPTER 17 PROCESS COSTING 17-1 Industries using process costing in their manufacturing area include chemical processing, oil refining, pharmaceuticals, plastics, brick and tile manufacturing, semiconductor chips, beverages, and breakfast cereals. 17-2 Process costing systems separate costs into cost categories according to the timing of when costs are introduced into the process. Often, only two cost classifications, direct materials and conversion costs, are necessary. Direct materials are frequently added at one point in time, often the start or the end of the process. All conversion costs are added at about the same time, but in a pattern different from direct materials costs. Conversion costs are often added throughout the process, …show more content…
17-6 Three inventory methods associated with process costing are: • Weighted average. • First-in, first-out. • Standard costing.

17-7 The weighted-average process-costing method calculates the equivalent-unit cost of all the work done to date (regardless of the accounting period in which it was done), assigns this cost to equivalent units completed and transferred out of the process, and to equivalent units in ending work-in-process inventory.


17-8 FIFO computations are distinctive because they assign the cost of the previous accounting period’s equivalent units in beginning work-in-process inventory to the first units completed and transferred out of the process and assign the cost of equivalent units worked on during the current period first to complete beginning inventory, next to start and complete new units, and finally to units in ending work-in-process inventory. In contrast, the weighted-average method costs units completed and transferred out and in ending work in process at the same average cost. 17-9 FIFO should be called a modified or departmental FIFO method because the goods transferred in during a given period usually bear a single average unit cost (rather than a distinct FIFO cost for each unit transferred in) as a matter of convenience. 17-10 A major advantage of FIFO is that managers can judge the performance in the current period independently from the performance in the

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