Utilitarianism: John Mill And Bernard Williams

Bernard Williams created an experiment to question people about utilitarianism, to be for or against it. Jim finds himself in the central square of a small South American town where he has to make a strange decision. There are twenty Indians who caused some trouble in the town and since Jim is a visitor the captain has him decide the fate. He has the option of killing one and letting the others live or refusing and then they all will die. There’s no way to save myself and them all so he has to make a decision (JJC Smart and Bernard Williams, Utilitarianism: For and Against, 1973). There are two philosophers who made theories that will help Jim make his decision. John Mill and Immanuel Kant are too philosophers who made theories that based on …show more content…
Rationality meaning one 's judge of values and one 's guide to action.“Settle, for sure and universally, what conduct will promote the happiness of a rational being.”( Kant) Kant first starts by arguing that we are indeed responsible for what we do. The actions that we take are not just a set of events that we have no control over. Other philosophers believe that they are just another set of events that are determined by the things we cannot control. He also bases morality as a matter of duty that is common sense. Whether we feel against or not we know the morally right thing and it’s our duty to care out our action. Apart from what is in the sense of good will nothing else is considered to be good. He says that when guided to do what’s good in by morality there is no seeking for the reward. The simple reward is doing the right thing. When based off of feelings as for a reward for doing the right thing then it is not morality. The main goal is to fulfill a duty, whether we think it’s right or wrong, whether we get pleasure from it or not, whether we benefit from it or not. In his view, morals are superior to emotions and desires. His theory consist of deontological ethics that are based on character (Kant, p 44). When a person makes a decision based on the moral law, then they are considered a “good” person in Kant’s eyes. He believes that doing the right thing acquire “good

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