John B Gurdon Case Study

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006: Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka A cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organism. In other word all of our organs, and tissues our made of cells. Cell can be mature or specialize for a specific function this mean cells from your organs is not the same as cells form your tissues. In the search of new ways to counter diseases we are facing scientist have found ways to extract special cells and used them to cure diseases. This type of cells are called stem cells, they have potentiality to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. Stem cells is used to cured disease and also repairing other cells as they can …show more content…
Gurdon was born on October 2nd 1933, in Dippehall United kingdom. He is an English developmental biologist. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 2012 for his research on how mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Sir Gordon in his research wanted to show the capacity nuclei taken from intestinal epithelium cell of feeding tadpole. He used the Xenopus laevis laevis for the experiment. He also used the translation technique for this experiment, where he translated The Xenopus nuclear marker to marked donor nuclei into unmarked recipient eggs.(Gurdon 1962). Gurdon wanted to see among the transplant-embryos which one of them will have the marked nuclei beyond the blastula stage, as result it will proved they have come from the transplanted nucleus and not from the egg nucleus. There were Six experiments involving the transplantation of intestinal epithelium cell nuclei (referred to as intestine nuclei).(Gurdon 1962). In this six experiment 10 normal tadpole was obtained count as 11/2 percent of the 726 transplanted intestine nuclei. This is proved to show that the transplanted intestine nuclei were able to produce all the cell types necessary for the formation of a feeding tadpole. For the remaining experiment, some transfers resulted in various degrees …show more content…
Yamanaka was born in September 4, 1962, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The exact year J.B Gurdon was doing research on the pluripotency of cells. Yamanaka experiment goal was the induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions embryonic(Yamanaka,2006). These factors play crucial whole on the maintenance of pluripotency in both early embryos and ES cells. For his experiment, Yamanaka used four transcription factors to see if they will induce pluripotency in the somatic cells. The goal was to take somatic cells, cells like tissue or organs and reprogrammed them using the 4 transcription factors mention earlier. These four factor will force the somatic cell to express genes important for maintaining the defining properties of ESCs. In the experiment Yamanaka used 24 embryonic cells transcription factors which were introduced to mice fibroblast by retrovirus vectors(Yamanaka,2006). After different experiment where these factors was induced to find their exact functions, only 4 of them was essential for the induce pluripotent transformation. These four factors each of them play a role on the transformation of the somatic cell to pluripotent. Oct3/4, Sox2, function as core transcription factors in maintaining pluripotency, they are

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