Jail System China Essays
The Prison Law of the People's Republic of China was adopted and went into force on December 20, 1994 at the 11th meeting of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress.
The Prison Law provides that the State Council judicial administration (Ministry of Justice) supervises all prisons across the country. The Ministry of Justice has a Bureau of Prison Administration that supervises all prisons in the country. In the provinces (municipalities directly under the central government and autonomous regions), offices of justice are responsible for managing prisons in their own jurisdiction through their prison administration arms.
Prisons in China are divided into two categories:
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The Prison Law states that the state ensures funding for prisons in reforming inmates. Expenses related to prison police, reformation of prisoners, daily life of inmates, maintenance of prison facilities and other items are budgeted for in the central government's planning. The state provides production facilities and funding needed for prison labor. Land, mineral resources and other natural resources legally employed by prisons, as well as the property of prisons are protected by law; no entity or individual can trespass or damage those properties.
Article 3 of the Prison Law states that prisons should follow the principle of combining penalty with reform, education with labor, in a bid to reform prisoners into law-abiding citizens.
1. Transformation Through Punishment
Prisons punish criminals because, without punishment, it is difficult for criminals to come to grips with their crimes and begin their life anew. While punishment focuses on enforcement, reform focuses on transformation. Punishment is the means, while transformation is the end. The purpose of punishment is to transform criminals into law-abiding citizens. This is precisely what criminal penalties are for. Prisons do not punish criminals for punishment's sake.
2. Combining Education with Labor