Inula Britanna

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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Inula britannica L. (IBL) is a predominant medicinal plant traditionally utilized in the treatments of arthritis and back pain in Iranian folk medicine.
Aim of the study: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the analgesic effects of Inula britannica L. flower essential oil (IBLEO) and one of its major constituents, Patuletin (Pn), in male mice.
Materials and Methods: In this study, we used pain assessment tests including acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick, formalin, and glutamate-induced paw licking (GPL). For understanding the supposed analgesic mechanisms of IBLEO, opioid and L-Arginine/NO/cGMP/ KATP pathways were examined. A rotarod exam was performed to assess any possible effect of IBLEO on the motor activity of mice.
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In mice, pain decreased with the administration of Naloxone, an opioid non-selective antagonist, plus IBLEO (p < 0.001). However, administration of selective opioid antagonists (Naltrindole, Nor-binaltorphimine, and Naloxonazine) attenuated the antinociceptive effect of IBLEO (p < 0.001). Both methylene blue and Glibenclamide blocked the antinociceptive effect of IBLEO (p < 0.05), but the administration of L-Arginine or sodium nitroprusside fundamentally potentiated the antinociception induced by IBLEO in phase II of the formalin test (p < 0.05). Patuletin showed strong analgesic effects in all tests (p <

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