Intrinsic And Extrinsic Motivation In Rugby
Collins (2002) stressed rugby not only for killing time, but also became an educational instrument. World Rugby (2014) proposed rugby is a team sport which is a full-contact and fast-moving activity. Also, it provided benefits for social and health. In United States, rugby also was the fastest growth sports. It was the second popular sports after football (Utah Youth Rugby, 2017). Rugby have called ‘Elegant Violence’ by the players (Fields & Comstock, 2008).
Before 1823, the name of rugby is called rugby football and it was played like soccer. Yet, it allowed the players to catch the ball. Since 1823, a boy called William Webb Ellis picked the football up and ran with it. The rules had not accepted …show more content…
They were the light of the development and education. Intrinsic motivation was an important element, it reflected the human orientation of learning and assimilating, whereas extrinsic motivation had less relative autonomy. Extrinsic motivation was tended to external control.
2.2.1 Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation was defined as the action behavior was based on native satisfaction. The action of person was motivated by the fun and challenge and it was not motivated by the prods, pressure or rewards (White, 1959). Human was an organism which possessed curiosity and active action. They would learn and explore the world everywhere and every moment. Benware & Deci (1984 cited in Ryan & Deci, 2000) proposed that compared the children with intrinsic motivation and children with extrinsic motivation, the children with intrinsic motivation had the better learning and initiative. The children with intrinsic motivation tended to explore and extend themselves (Grolnick, Deci & Ryan, 1997 cited in Ryan & Deci,2000). The athletes practiced the sports might due to the interesting of sports or satisfaction of learning. They played sports in order to …show more content…
There are 3 psychological needs determine the level of intrinsic motivation determined: autonomy, competence and relatedness. First, sports players need autonomy for their behaviors. It means people need to feel independent and need to know the cause of their own behaviors. The actions are not controlled by others (Beck, 2004; Deci & Ryan, 1985). Next, players need to believe they have the competence to the activity. Such as the sports players believe they can win the math or complete the mission. The last is relatedness which means the feeling of connecting to others. The more need can satisfy, people can gain greater fun and have the motion to conduct the activity. Self-determination theory proposed the cause of less autonomy is a person appears the overjustification effect when he feels his behaviors are controlled by rewards. Anderson, Manoogian and Reznick (1976) also stressed if praise is an indicator of competence, the increased competence can enhance the motivation and fun for the children and adults in activity. Amorose and Horn (2000 cited in Beck, 2004) conducted the research from different sports players and found that scholarship players had the greater enjoyment than nonscholarship