Innate Immune System Of Immune Defense For The Elimination Of Pathogens

976 Words Jun 29th, 2016 4 Pages
Introduction
The invasion of microorganisms constantly threatened many organisms and it has evolved systems of immune defense for the elimination of pathogens in the body (Shizuo Akira1, 2006). Innate and adaptive immunity are two branches that are comprised in the immune system (Shizuo Akira1, 2006). The innate immune system is the first line of the defense against pathogens and it is mediated by phagocytes, which includes macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). Adaptive immunity involved in the elimination of pathogens in the late phase of infection as well as the generation of immunological memory (Shizuo Akira1, 2006). This type of immunity is characterized by specificity and develops by clonal selection from a vast range of lymphocytes bearing antigen-specific receptors that are produced through a mechanism that is generally known as gene rearrangement. The innate immune response is not entirely specific, but it was rather able to discriminate between self and a variety of pathogens (Shizuo Akira1, 2006). The innate immune system identifies microorganisms through a limited number of germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). This is large varieties of rearranged receptors utilized by the adaptive system. PRRs identify microbial components known as pathogen- associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and they are important for the survival of the microorganism and are therefore difficult for the microorganism to change (Ruey-Horng Shih, 2015). The basic machineries…

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