Industrial Applications Of Citric Acid

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Organic Acids
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their carboxyl group –COOH. Sulfonic acids, containing the group –SO2OH, are relatively stronger acids. Alcohols, with –OH, can act as acids but they are usually very weak. In general, organic acids are weak acids and do not dissociate completely in water, whereas the strong mineral acids do. Lower molecular mass organic acids such as formic and lactic acids are miscible in water, but higher molecular mass organic acids, such as benzoic acid, are insoluble in molecular (neutral) form. A few examples of organic acids include:
Acetic acid (ethanoic acid ) CH3COOH
• Citric acid
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Food and drink
Because it is one of the stronger edible acids, the dominant use of citric acid is used as a flavoring and preservative in food and beverages, especially soft drinks. Citric acid can be added to ice cream as an emulsifying agent to keep fats from separating, to caramel to prevent sucrose crystallization, or in recipes in place of fresh lemon juice. (3)
2. Cleaning and chelating agent
Citric acid is an excellent chelating agent, binding metals. It is used to remove limescale from boilers and evaporators.[9] It can be used to soften water, which makes it useful in soaps and laundry detergents. By chelating the metals in hard water, it lets these cleaners produce foam and work better without need for water softening. Citric acid is the active ingredient in some bathroom and kitchen cleaning solutions. A solution with a 6% concentration of citric acid will remove hard water stains from glass without scrubbing. In industry, it is used to dissolve rust from steel. Citric acid can be used in shampoo to wash out wax and coloring from the hair. (3)
3. Cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, and
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Pesticides
The main use of pyridine is as a precursor to the herbicides paraquat and diquat.The first synthesis step of insecticide chlorpyrifos consists of the chlorination of pyridine. Pyridine is also the starting compound for the preparation of pyrithione-based fungicides. Cetylpyridinium and laurylpyridinium, which can be produced from pyridine with a Zincke reaction, are used as antiseptic in oral and dental care products.
2. Solvent
Pyridine is used as a solvent in the manufacture of dyes and rubber.It is also used in the textile industry to improve network capacity of cotton. Pyridine is added to ethanol to make it unsuitable for drinking. In low doses, pyridine is added to foods to give them a bitter flavor, and such usage is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. (6)
Imidazole
Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4. It is a white or colourless solid that is soluble in water, producing a mildly alkaline solution. In chemistry, it is an aromatic heterocycle, classified as a diazole, and having non-adjacent nitrogen

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