The Second Reconstruction: The Modern Civil Rights Movement

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The Second Reconstruction
The modern civil rights movement is characterized as the “second reconstruction,” because even though African Americans and other minorities had rights they were undermined and considered less than equal. “Efforts were, indeed, made to hold the Negro and his old state of subjection, especially in such localities where our military forces had not yet penetrated, or where the country was not garrisoned in detail” (Schurz 2). It took nearly a century for the goals of the 1st reconstruction to be met and that was due to the civil rights movement. The timing exceeds 100 years after the civil war because it was always an issue that went ignored or deemed unimportant. It took a second movement to get African Americans and
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“Laws enacted in the south that defined freedom for African Americans in terms that resembled slavery” (Clark 5). African Americans faced so many challenges in the time from the 1st reconstruction to the death of MLK. Oppression, discrimination, and segregation are some of the few. They were treated as less than equal even lower than second class citizens. They were hated more each day because of their attempt to obtain the same rights as the white race. The saying separate but equal is a false claim if everything was truly equivalent there would be no need to keep black and white apart. Blacks challenged the white supremacist and Jim Crow laws by integration. They took a stand they no longer believed the false claims of equilibrium and decided it was best to be mixed in with those who thought themselves …show more content…
The State of Montgomery trial. Parks was arrested for refusing to sit at the back of the bus which was a violation of one of the many Jim Crow laws. During the trial blacks refused to ride the Montgomery bus line which almost made the company bankrupt. Another plan for integration took place in 1957 year later in little rock Arkansas the little rock 9 were nine African American students enrolled in a racially segregated school in an attempt to desegregate it. None of these protest went without punishment but to be broken only made them stronger. African Americans suffered for years then finally no threat or any form of violence could deter them from receiving the liberties they

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