Importance Of The Prophylactic Antibiotic Study: The Effect Of Timing Avoided

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Guinn_ENVM510_M4GradedAssign – Sunday
1. Prophylactic antibiotic study: The variable of timing considered.

Background:
Preventing infection in surgical patients with prophylactic antibiotics uses overall less antibiotics than treating a patient post-surgery who have developed an infection (Burke, 2001). These results indicate an overall reduction in infections, which reduce the overall use of antibiotics. The variable that is critical in the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic use is the element of timing (Burke, 2011).

Study objective:
The research question being considered for this study is how to reduce both infections and mortalities associated with open chest cavity surgery using prophylactic antibiotic treatments. Study
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Antibiotic resistance: Which antibiotic type and does are most effective?

Background:
The impending crisis with antibiotic resistance must be addressed with the most effective use antimicrobial agents. This can be achieved with utilizing effective doses and reducing hospital errors (Burke, 2001). Medical errors are the greatest contributor to the development of resistance in bacteria (Burke, 2001).

Study objective:
Evaluate a new antibiotic treatment to combat the emergence of anti-biotic resistant infection to reduce surgical infections and associated deaths from surgery. There are a multitude of factors that can influence the health outcome of a surgical patient, and the timing of prophylactic antibiotics in not always significant in the incidence of post-surgery infections (Hawn et al., 2013). Studies have suggested that the type of antibiotic used are significant (Hawn et al, 2013).

Study design:
For this study we will use a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent surgery over the last 15 years at the county hospital. Evaluation will be performed on the type and dose of the antibiotics used and whether or not an infection or infection related death followed surgery.
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(2001). Maximizing Appropriate Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Surgical Patients: An Update from LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City. Clinical Infectious Diseases CLIN INFECT DIS, 33(S2). doi:10.1086/321861

Hawn, M. T., Richman, J. S., Vick, C. C., Deierhoi, R. J., Graham, L. A., Henderson, W. G., & Itani, K. M. (2013). Timing of Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis and the Risk of Surgical Site Infection. JAMA Surgery JAMA Surg, 148(7), 649. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.134

Oliveira, J. C., Martinelli, M., Nishioka, S. A., Varejao, T., Uipe, D., Pedrosa, A. A., . . . Danik, S. B. (2009). Efficacy of Antibiotic Prophylaxis Before the Implantation of Pacemakers and Cardioverter-Defibrillators: Results of a Large, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 2(1), 29-34.

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