Importance Of The Nucleolus Using Raman Micropectroscopy

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Gene expression within a eukaryotic cell is directly impacted by the spatial organization of the nucleus [1]. Cellular organization is carried out at the chromosome-level [1], through means of chromosome folding, gene kissing, looping, nuclear lamina associations and protein-nucleic acid interactions within nuclear bodies. Observation of the nucleolus using Raman microspectroscopy may provide more insight into macromolecule density and distribution, as well as provide answers to the still unknown mechanism involved in spatial compartmentalization. Moreover, research on the role of CDK-1 has revealed that it is an important component in telomere/nuclear envelope separation [3], and therefore important in spatial organization and gene expression. …show more content…
A “territory” is a distinct region in the nucleus in which folded chromosomes of differentiated cells occupy [1]. Within a territory, loci that are transcriptionally active tend to be located between territories, near the middle of the nucleus, while transcriptionally repressed loci are associated with the perimeter [1]. Interestingly, genes are also able to localize at the interior upon activation, with evidence that co-regulated genes are able to co-localize in what is referred to as “gene kissing” [1]. The localization of genes arises from the Brownian motion/constrained diffusion and directed movement of chromosomes [1]. It is important to note that the fractal and dynamic loop models reiterate the importance of loop formation in nuclear organization, including compaction, territory establishment, and transcriptional regulation [1]. Another important factor affecting gene regulation is the …show more content…
More specifically, they wanted to observe these features in both stem cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells using a label-free method known as Raman microspectroscopy (RMS) [2]. As discussed, gene expression is directly impacted by the spatial organization of the nucleus [1]. RMS, then, may be useful in future studies that aim to observe things such as nucleic acid and protein density/distribution within the nucleolus and potentially answer challenging questions regarding the mechanisms behind spatial

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