Effective Feedback Research

Formative assessments are critical to both teaching and learning. It helps to determine a student’s level of understanding and what discrepancies lie between the level of understanding and the targeted goal. With this knowledge, the teacher then can guide instruction to fill the gap of a student’s understanding or ability. Feedback is an important element in this process. It provides the student with the information of how their present level relates to the targeted goal and the necessary tools to move from that level toward achievement of the goal. When given correctly and with intention, feedback can also provide strategic ways for students to correct their errors and modify their thinking or behavior. The targeted goals should be clear …show more content…
Timeliness is critical since this will allow for revisions to occur, provide scaffolding for learners and inform instruction (Akkuzu, 2011; Flukiger 2011 and Van Den Bergh, 2011). Wilian (2011) stresses that feedback could also be given too early thus curbing a student’s motivation to seek out the correct answer and stifling students’ willingness to work out a problem. When given effectively, feedback directs the students to what’s next rather than simply seeking a grade or confirmation from the teacher. Although providing feedback seems like common sense, providing effective feedback is much more difficult than it would appear. The qualitative descriptors of effective feedback should include the adequacy, quantity or quality of the given task. It should be precise, uncomplicated, descriptive and specific to the activity. Only then, the feedback provides the student with the ability to take ownership of their …show more content…
Feedback from a variety of sources may be instrumental in greatly enhancing student behavior and learning. When based on the clearly stated goals, effective forms of feedback comes from the teacher, a peer, a book, parent, self, or an experience Akkuzu; Heir. There are numerous classroom techniques that promote the process of students providing feedback to peers through collaborative or cooperative learning. There are four main factors attributed to why collaborative learning is so successful. The first is motivation. When the setting is appropriately designed, it is beneficial for students to guide other students toward achievement so, thus increasing student effort. Next, social cohesion is satisfied when students help each other. Third, the struggle toward achievement is personalized because peers are able to relate to and connect with the difficulties of others. Finally, when students are encouraged to provide help to their struggling peers they must analyze and communicate the concepts more succinctly. Research provides numerous examples of the positive effectives of peer interaction on student achievement (Fluckiger; Wilian,

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