Impact Of Culture On Globalization

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Introduction:
Today 's infrastructure enables an easy access to people and places all around the world along with products, services and technologies that can move easily across national borders. Companies today have increased opportunities to enter foreign markets and it is common that they operate in international environments (Albaum and Duerr, 2008). This environment is also called ‘globalization’ that has become an interesting topic in the academic world. The meaning of globalization according to Friedman (1999, p.7-8) is as following: “The inexorable integration of markets, nation states, and technologies to a degree never witnessed before- in a way that is enabling individuals, corporations and nation-states to reach around the world
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The advertisement showed a women bathing, her husband entering the bathroom and touching her. The Japanese considered this advertisement an invasion of privacy, inappropriate behavior, and in very poor taste. 
Consumers are different in each country. These differences arise from discrepancies in spending, values, attitudes and tastes among cultures (Usunier, 1993). Cultural values have long been recognized in the marketing literature as a strong influence on consumer motivation, lifestyle and product choices. Indeed, cultural values are often expressed through consumption behavior (Tse and Wong, 1988). Cultural influences what is purchased as well as why, how, when, where and by whom a product is purchased (Ricks, 1983). Therefore, it can be assumed that “culture impacts every aspects of marketing strategy” (Jain, 1989, p. 73). 
The marketer who does not understand foreign cultures, or is insensitive to the differences that distinguish each nation, might fail on the global market. The cultural factors such as peoples’ traditions, customs, beliefs and attitudes are affecting their needs and wants and how they are satisfied. The culture shapes the way people behave in a certain society. Some global companies work closely with related market research companies and marketing communication agencies that provide valuable insight into the similarities and differences among consumers in …show more content…
163) stresses the fact that “business is a different game with different rules in each country”. Hence, to solve the cultural challenge companies might use two strategies; they need to decide whether to have a homogeneous or a heterogeneous strategy (Lee & Chen, 2003). Homogeneous strategy is referring to standardization. This strategy is an international marketing strategy that uses basically the same marketing strategy and mix in all the company’s international markets (Armstrong & Kotler, 2008). The second strategy, heterogeneous, is referring to adaptation. This strategy is an international marketing strategy for adjusting the marketing strategy and mixes elements to each international target market, bearing more costs but hoping for a larger market share and return (Armstrong & Kotler, 2008). Therefore, since globalized companies operate in countries that have different cultures, it needs to choose whether to standardize or adapt the global marketing and advertising strategy. The questions of whether to standardize or to adapt the international marketing have received great attention, both options presenting positive arguments as well as serious

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