Hydrogen In Emission Engines

Great Essays
1 Introduction
Since the early 1970s the need for a clean and environmental friendly alternative to the use of fossil fuel in combustion engines, especially in individual transportation, has grown with ups and downs over time. Increased awareness of climate change and global warming have enforced the so called hydrogen energy transition, which describes the significant change from the dominant oil based technologies towards the use of hydrogen as a clean fuel in transportation. Although hydrogen could be used instead of fossil fuel in combustion engines, its replacement by a fuel cell is intended. It has a higher efficiency than a combustion engine, provides electrical energy to power an electrical drive, generates water as a by-product and
…show more content…
Additionally, a compact and lightweight geometry and the ability to a quick refill play a major role as well. To generate a benchmark for hydrogen storage materials, the US Department of Energy (DOE) developed a catalogue of criteria, that had to be fulfilled to make the material interesting for the automotive industry. Table 1 presents the benchmarks for the single …show more content…
Unfortunately, 1 kg of hydrogen requires 11 m3 of volume at ambient temperature and pressure. In addition, a load between 4 and 8 kg is required to guarantee comparable driving ranges with petrol fuelled cars. It is obvious that ways have to be found to increase hydrogen density to a level where storage mobility is feasible. The following chapter gives a brief but uncomplete overview on possible ways of fulfilling this task and Table 2 shows a comparability of the different types in numbers. [2]
The most common storage system for gaseous hydrogen are high pressure gas cylinders, which can handle pressures up to 70 MPa. Size and wall thickness depend on the material used. Ideally these materials have a high yield strength, low density and guarantee no to little reactivity or diffusivity. Most common used are stainless steel, aluminium or copper. Now developments focus on high strength composite cylinders which can handle up to 80 MPa and increase the volumetric hydrogen capacity from 30 to 36 kg/m3. Thus compression of hydrogen could be easily done by using a simple piston-type compressor, safety concerns about the high pressure cylinders and relatively low hydrogen density make this method not an ideal solution.

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Third, because of the fuel injection system the diesel gets burnt completely before leaving the engine whereas in petrol engine some portion with the exhaust is unavoidable. Diesel engine properties: 1) Energetic- provides large amount of energy. 2) More mileage- gives more and better mileage as compare to any other engine. 3) Lower cost of ownership. A diesel engine runs on a compression ratio which is much more higher than a petrol engine.…

    • 1870 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Hydrogen Vs Natural Gas

    • 1600 Words
    • 7 Pages

    For gaseous hydrogen compression it is estimated a capital cost of $ 2000 - 3000 / kW and power requirement of 0.5 – 2 kW / kg / hr. Although liquefaction is more costly than compression, storing of H2 in liquid form is inexpensive and more practical than storing H2 in compressed gaseous form. Hydrogen has the lowest energy density and thus more amount of hydrogen is needed to give equal amount of energy as gasoline. Therefore the higher the pressure, the lower the storage volume and higher the energy stored. (Ebner,…

    • 1600 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    CaSO4 CaSO4 has the largest oxygen carrying capacity among all the currently proposed carriers. The oxygen ratio is 0.4706 for CaSO4-calcium sulphide (CaS), much higher than that of many other metal oxides such as CuO-Cu2O, NiO-Ni, and Fe2O3- Fe3O4. Calcium sulphate is a relatively stable material. It is a widespread natural resource and therefore the cost would be quite low even if the demand is high. Through the thermodynamic analysis, it seemed that CaSO4 can be used as a promising oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion.…

    • 1144 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Even though this is is a really good point about how reliable a Diesel engine is there are a couple other good and important reasons to why Diesel engines are more reliable. Diesel engines prove that they are more reliable, because they can run almost three times longer than a gasoline engine. According to trucktrend, "Gas engines only last 100,000 to 200,000, but Diesel engines last 3 times longer than that" (Schifsky). Diesel engines last longer because they are built better than a gasoline engine. Since diesels operate on compressed air you do not have to worry about carbon monoxide and unburdened hydrocarbons forming in the crevices of the cylinder walls like they do in gas engines.…

    • 726 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Electric Cars

    • 1221 Words
    • 5 Pages

    The average person today will fill up their vehicles with different grades of petrol, because that is what the common vehicle takes. They normally don’t consider a substitute for the petrol that they fill up their cars with. Although petrol is the most common, it isn’t the only source of power for a car; electricity and diesel can be used instead of the general petrol that powers most automobiles. Although they differ from each other, electricity and diesel are replacements to the average petrol received at a fuel station. Electricity run vehicles have large high capacity batteries that produce low horsepower but, nevertheless fast automobiles.…

    • 1221 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Flow Battery Cycle

    • 1725 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Flow batteries have been around since the 1970’s this technological advance in the field of energy storage and acts as a fuel cell which can provide a new and efficient energy supply. One of the biggest advantages of flow batteries is that they can practically in an instance recharge just by replacing the electrolyte liquid,while this happens it is recovering the spent materials for recharge. Several different flow batteries have been developed, including Redox, Hybrid and, Membraneless. The Redox class of flow batteries has its name from the reduction and oxidation reactions to store energy in liquid electrolyte solutions. Two reactions occur in this battery the discharge reaction and the charge reaction.…

    • 1725 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    invention of CARBON NANO TUBES. The invented tubes can store hydrogen in a better way in terms of security and efficiency. With respect to the annual production of hydrogen fuel, transportation of hydrogen to the refueling stations is a major challenge, but with the recent comprehensive research by NREI, transporting energy to the stations is made possible by the mixture of both hydrogen and natural gas in the natural gas pipelines, and this comes with a low mixing rates of 3% to 5%. And due to this mixture, the emission of CO2 is drastically reduced. Furthermore, a case study regarding the transition to 100% renewable energy using hydrogen is considered.…

    • 978 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Crushed quart filler is mainly “inert”at room temperature, however, is able to improve workability considerably in M-S-H ternary system (MgO-SF-QF). Fillers content is effective from 10-40% of the binder without clear optimal…

    • 1558 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Duke acquired two current production 3-litre automobile engines one European and the other Japanese for ways to provide true comparisons. The present prototype Duke 3-litre engine is up to 19% lighter than those two engines, despite being far from improved for minimum weight. For example, the substantial weight contributed by the many fastenings in the evolving engines would not be present in a manufacture version. The Duke 's size advantage is even more extraordinary, being as little as one third of the shipping box volume. The crate size that would house the engine of the 3litre comparison engines.…

    • 765 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Plug In Cars

    • 1412 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The pollution created by most petroleum vehicles is a big cause of global warming. As pointed out by: Siena Kaplan, Brad Heavner, and Rob Sargent, "Plug-in cars ... produce less global warming pollution, emit little or no pollution from the tailpipe, and reduce our dependence on oil” (Plug-in Electric Vehicles Will Reduce Air Pollution). One of the most important things we need to consider, is where we get our energy. Some parts of the country obtain their energy from coal; which is not a clean source of energy for pollution reduction. The energy source we need to advance in, is clean energy.…

    • 1412 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays