Essay on Humanism, Cognitivism and Behaviourism
‘Humanism stresses [a learner’s] interests, individuality and creativity – in short the [learner’s] freedom to develop naturally and from teacher domination’ (Lunenburg p.467).
When teaching a lesson a teacher is more of a facilitator when planning and delivering a lesson. An effective humanistic approach is not one of teacher control (behaviourism) nor does it …show more content…
‘Behavioural psychology, also known as behaviourism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviours are acquired through conditioning.’ (psychology.about.com)
In contrast to cognitivism which depends on enhancing learning through a learner’s previous knowledge and expanding in it, behaviourism is more to do with the conditioning of the learner by the teacher. There are two main types of conditioning when looking at behaviourism and they are:
Classical conditioning – this is the technique in which a stimulus is matched with a response through repetitive behaviour. If I blew a whistle every time that someone smelled their favourite food, they eventually would feel hungry every time I blew that whistle through classical conditioning. In this instance the controlled stimulus is the sound of the whistle and the controlled response is the feeling of hunger when the whistle is blown.
Operant conditioning – this is sometimes referred to as Skinnerian condition as this was discovered by the behaviourist B.F. Skinner. This is split into two sub sections. The reinforcement aspect of operant conditioning can be positive or negative depending on the behaviour of the learner. Praise and direct reward are positive reinforcers