How The Structure And Function Have Always Had A Close Relationship? Biological, Chemical And General Terms

1394 Words Jan 25th, 2016 null Page
Structure and function have always had a close relationship in biological, chemical and general terms. Often the functionality is dependent upon the structure, for example the villi on the epithelial cells increase the surface area and hence the rate of absorbance of molecules in to cells and the blood stream. DNAs function is highly specific to its structure as even the smallest change to this could cause a long term effect, or even death. Base sequence mutations, errors in replication and environmental factors are the main cause of changes to DNA.

The structure of DNA was first discovered by James D. Watson and Francis Crick, and in 1962 they won the Nobel prize for discovering this structure, one of the most significant discoveries in the 20th century. This double helical structure is the same for all species, apart from a few strains of virus which have mRNA instead of DNA, and their discovery explained how DNA replicates and how hereditary information is coded.

Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, contains the genetic instructions used in the development and function of all living organisms. The main role of DNA molecules is the storage of information and instructions needed to construct components of cells, such as proteins and RNA. The segments of DNA that carry this genetic information are called genes.

DNA has an anti-parallel double helix, with a sugar phosphate backbone. The two long chain polymers consist of smaller units, nucleotides. Attached to each sugar is one…

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