Martin Luther's Views On The Temporal State

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1. The first wall used by the clergy to protect themselves from fair council is their assertion that the temporal state has no authority over them. Luther believes this to be a lie, where in fact it is the exact opposite, the temporal state has authority over the spiritual. He supports this by claiming all Christians are spiritually equal, destroying the hierarchy within the Catholic church. He also uses scripture, specifically Romans 13:1-4 which states, “Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake, … for so is the will of God.” Because God wishes for us to abide by the laws of man, the temporal state has authority over all Christians.

2. Luther attacks the second wall in the same manner he attacked the first. He begins
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Luther defends his doctrine of justification by faith and not works by quoting several excerpts from scripture, particularly the passage from John 2:27, 29, “This is the work of God: that ye believe on Him whom He hath sent, for him hath the Father sealed.” God ordained that all men should have faith in His works alone. This is the only way to be considered a virtuous individual in the eyes of God, good works alone do not sustain the soul. Good works do not make a man a good person unless he has good intentions as well.

2. When Luther mentions Christian Liberty he means he’s not talking about the conventional ideals of freedom as we do today. He’s talking about the freedom of guilt and remission of sin, the idea that by faith alone one can be free of their past transgressions when they move onto their second life.

Supplication for Beggars

1. Fish views King John and the events leading up to the magna carta as an example as to how society should be. His key example being King Arthur; Fish claims that if King Arthur’s commonwealth were exposed to the same treatment as they were in the 16th century, then it would have been impossible for him to carry his army to the foot of the mountains and resist Lucius and his
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The explanation provided by Fish to the reason why so many beggars and vagabonds exist in England is because of the clergy. According to Fish they own a third of the land in England, and the burden of taxes are placed most heavily upon the lay people of the country rather than the clergy who are more financially secure. Fish blames the church for continually taking from the lay people and never giving back to the community as they should. They relentlessly burden the third estate with indulgences, burial, and other payments Fish believed to be only a nuisance to the commonwealth that only furthered their

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