History of Transgender Essays
© 1999 Drs. Arianne van der Ven
Introduction: The development of gender as we know it
How does history relate to us? 3
From a one-gender system to a two-gender system, and on to ‘third sex’ categories. 3
Some specifics of gender transitions. 5
Part I: Sexology begins.
Transgender Identities before the 19th century 7
The early 19th century: Enters forensic psychiatry 7
The late nineteenth century: Inverts turn to Experts.
Enters sexology and the empirical case history. 8
Part II: Early 20th century The rise of Psychoanalysis and it's denial of transgender identities
Developments in Medical technology. …show more content…
Part II describes the second fifty years of psychiatry (1910-1960), when psychoanalysis turned the table between gender and sexuality. To Freud gender was a simple matter of genital fact, and transgender practice (like cross-dressing or expressing transsexual longing) a mere denial of homosexuality. Transgender operations came to a standstill.
Part III shows how, after the absolute dominance of psychoanalysis waned in the 1960’s, psychiatry reinstated transgender identities, under the names of transsexuality and cross-dressing. In the 1980's psychiatry gradually relaxed the many requirements imposed on transgenders to be eligible for complete and partial medical treatments. At the same time a TG community in the US reshaped itself, using inclusive terms like ‘transgender’ and political ones like ‘freedom of gender-expression’. This way the US TG community started to gain control over its representation in the media, and to influence it’s member’s view of itself in a non-psychiatric way. Under an even more inclusive term of Queer identities, some transgenders in the US reunited themselves strategically with the gay and lesbian