History of Corrections: from Then to Now Essay example

1814 Words Sep 15th, 2013 8 Pages
Running head: HISTORY OF CORRECTIONS

History of Corrections:
From Then to Now
Kris L. Sullivan
Colorado Technical University Online

A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements of
Corrections Solutions
January 14, 2008

Abstract
The U.S. corrections system, a subdivision of the criminal justice system, continues to undergo change. From its beginnings as laws written in stone, the corrections system has sought to punish offenders. The origin of the corrections system dates back several thousand years and has witnessed various perspectives and goals. The best method of administering punishment to these prisoners has remained an issue of dispute for many years. Events through history, such
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Taking what John Howard discovered in 1773, reform swept over the prisons in an effort to eliminate unsanitary, unhealthy, and disease stricken prisons (Bartollas, 2002, p. 36). Later, America saw its first penitentiary established in Pennsylvania in 1829. Tickets of leave and the Irish Mark System, precursors to parole, encouraged the development of probation in the 1840s in Boston while the federal level did not begin parole until 1910 (Hoffman, 2003). A Declaration of Principles in 1870 sought to instill a hailing of reform for prisoners. The idea entailed a system of reformation as the primary goal for corrections and provided a system of rewards for appropriate behavior (Bartollas, 2002, p. 52). The history of corrections breaks down into eras including the Penitentiary Era, the Mass Prison Era, the Reformatory Era, the Industrial Era, Punitive Era, Treatment Era, Community-based Era, Warehousing Era, and the Just-Deserts Era (Ortmeier, 2006, p. 391). A more notable event in history, however, remains the rise of community-based corrections. Although community-based corrections has roots dating back several hundred years, Americans, even after leaving the idea, gradually found themselves enveloped with the idea again. Modern management also has had a hand in shaping the U.S. corrections system with the administration and

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