Historical Development of Nursing Timeline Essay

1253 Words Apr 8th, 2013 6 Pages
Historical Development of Nursing Timeline

Historical Development of Nursing Timeline
Nursing is an art and a science. This coexistence assists in the development and advancement of nursing to a higher level of professional practice. The art of nursing emphasizes interpersonal relationships between the nurse and the patient, empathy, and dedication to caring for a patient. The science is the foundation of nursing that guides nursing care based upon the latest scientific discoveries within the nursing and other related disciplines such as medicine, psychology, and social sciences (Walker & Avant, 2011).
In biblical times, female members of societies were responsible for caring for ill. There was neither organized
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In 1959, Hall presented care, core, and cure theory, where caring and nurturing for a patient were interconnected with patient’s ability to make decisions of “therapeutic use of self” (George, 2011, p. 183). Many of the nursing leaders in this era recognized that nursing science and theory development were needed to change the status of nursing from a career to a profession (Walker & Avant, 2011).
The theories developed during the 1960s focused on the relationships between the nurse and the patient. The theorists from Yale School, such as Henderson and Orlando, proposed their theories. Henderson in 1960, defined nursing as “assisting” and “help” for the individuals, focusing on the individual plan of care (George, 2011, p. 89). Orlando’s 1961 theory, The Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship: Function, Process, and Principles described nursing as an interactive process between the nurse and the individual patient within the immediate situation. Orlando shifted the focus of nursing from assisting the physician to assisting the patient, and promoted the independence of nursing (George, 2011).
In 1965, the American Nursing Association recommended two levels of nursing education, the baccalaureate and the associate, to distinguish the education for a professional nursing from that of the technical nursing profession. During the same time frame, the amount of nursing research was increasing. Nurses became involved in the

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