Heart Failure ( Hf ) Is A Complex And Progressive Clinical Syndrome

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Heart failure (HF) is a complex and progressive clinical syndrome that can result from any structural abnormality or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood.1 The term “heart failure” is preferred over “congestive heart failure” because some patients may show no signs or symptoms of volume overload.1

An estimated 5.1 million Americans >20 yrs of age have HF based on NHANES 2007-2010 data.2 By 2030, projection show that the prevalence of HF will increase 25% from 2013 estimates2. It is estimated that by year 2030, the total cost of HF will increase almost 120% to $70 billion from the 2013 estimated total cost of $32 billion.2 HF incidence increases with age, rising from approximately 20 per 1000 individuals 65 to 69 years of age to >80 per 1000 individuals 65 to 69 years of age.1 Blacks have the highest risk for HF. In the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study, incidence rate per 1000 person-years was lowest among white women and highest among black men.1
HF may result from disorders of myocardium, pericardium, endocardium, and heart valves or from certain metabolic abnormalities.1 Mostly patients with HF have symptoms due to impaired left ventricular (LV) myocardial function. There is a wide spectrum of LV functional abnormalities, which may range from patients with normal LV and preserved ejection fraction (EF) to severe dilatation and/or reduced EF.1 EF is a very important to classify patients with HF. Irrespective of EF, patients can…

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