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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

Willis Yuko Oso
Faculty of Education and School of Postgraduate Studies
Amoud University - Somaliland

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Copyright © Willis Yuko Oso, 2013.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in whole or in part or transmitted in any form or by any means (except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical review for educational purposes) without the express permission of the publisher in writing.

Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data

Willis Yuko Oso
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44
2.4.4 Characteristics of a Good Research Objective 45
2.4.5 Writing Research Objectives 46
2.5 Research Questions 52
2.6 Research Hypotheses 54
2.6.1 The Concept of a Hypothesis 54
2.6.2 Types of Hypotheses 55
2.6.3 Stating Research Hypotheses 57
2.6.4 Characteristics of a good Research Hypothesis 60
2.6.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of stating Research Hypotheses 60
2.7 Research Frameworks 62
2.7.1 Theoretical Framework 62
2.7.2 Conceptual Framework 64
2.7.3 Contextual Framework 69
2.7.3 Concept Mapping 71
3: LITERATURE REVIEW 73
3.0 Introduction 73
3.1 What is Literature Review? 73
3.2 Why Review Literature? 74
3.3 Sources of Information for Literature Review 75
3.3.1 Preliminary Sources 75
3.3.2 Primary Sources 77
3.3.3 Secondary Sources 77
3.4.1 Manual Search 79
3.4.1 Computer Search 80
3.4.3 Reporting Literature 81
3.5 Tools for Literature Review 88
4: RESEARCH VARIABLES 91
4.1 Introduction 91
4.1 What is a Research Variable? 91
4.2 Variables in Educational Research 94
4.2.1 The Independent Variable 94
4.2.2 Dependent (or Criterion) Variable 96
4.2.3 Extraneous Variables 96
4.2.4 Control Variables 98
4.2.5 Mediator Variable 99
4.2.6 Moderating Variable 99
4.2.7 Continuous Variable 100
4.2.8 Discrete Variable 100
4.2.9 Dummy (Pseudo) Variables 100
4.2.10 Latent and Manifest Variables 100
4.3 Levels of Measurement 101
4.3.1 Nominal Scale 102
4.3.2 Ordinal Scale 103

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