Health-Related Quality Of Life Case Study

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Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an evaluation of how the individual’s well-being may be affected over a period of time by a disease, disability or disorder. There are two types of HRQoL instruments; generic HRQoL instruments and disease-specific HRQoL instruments.
Generic HRQoL instruments consist of the multi-attribute utility instruments (MAUI). Generally, MAUI comprises of many sub-instruments such as EQ-5D, HUI, and SF-6. The EQ-5D defines health according to five dimensions which are mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression. HUI has Mark II and Mark III instruments whereby Mark II system consists of 7 attributes/dimensions: sensation, mobility, emotion, cognition, self-care, pain, and fertility.
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It was mainly to address the vision impairment such like the use of glasses and contact lenses. So, this bolt-on dimension takes into account after the respondents have used those vision enhancement objects. The included bolt-on item was a level 1 (no problems seeing) and most mean values for the EQ+Vision states were higher than those given to the corresponding EQ-5D-3L states.
It was found that the differences between EQ-5D-3L and EQ+Vision with a level 2 bolt-on item included were mixed. However, the vision coefficients were statistically significant. This indicates that vision has a significant impact on the values given to the health states beyond any impact captured within the five EQ-5D-3L dimensions. However, the bolt-on item may not be responsive to some interventions which remove the need for the use of that equipment; for example, laser eye surgery to remove the need for wearing glasses. Hence, further research is needed to establish an appropriate model.(Yang et al.,
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Also, it is found that there was no substantial differences between 3 bolt-ons items but the vision bolt-on has the greatest impact among the three bolt-ons. This is because tiredness was a much common health with a relatively high proportion of people reporting being extreme tired and this was not found for other dimensions. However, the study showed that the impact depended on the severity of the EQ-5D health state and the levels of bolt-on dimensions. (Yang et

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