Haslanger And Sveinsdotir's Perspective On Race And Gender

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Race and gender are usually questioned whether they exist, exist as natural kind, or exist as products of the society. In this paper, I will talk about Nagel and Wilkes’ ideas on personhood, and how they are related to natural kinds. Then, I will present and compare between Haslanger and Sveinsdottir’s accounts on gender and between Mills and Spencer’s account on race. Finally, I will explain why race and gender can’t cease to exist.
At the beginning, we should know that thought experiments are used in discussions about personal identity because there are cases that we can’t investigate empirically. For example, Derek Parfit suggests a case that we separate a person brain’s two hemispheres and place them into two distinct bodies without brains.
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He believes that race is objectively true but in a sense of intersubjectivity. First, we should know that Mills categorize himself as an objectivist on the topic of race, which means race exist independent of us. However, he doesn’t believe that race is natural kind and there is no biological fact of race. In addition, he claims that he is most sympathetic to the idea of race as being socially constructed. Therefore, he thinks that race is constructed by the results of beliefs and practices of society throughout history, which are subjective, but, together, they create an intersubjective sense that give us no control on the matter of race. For example, a white person is determined by his white skin, privilege social standing, white ancestors, and more. However, Mill also believes that ancestry is an insufficient criterion for determining a person’s race because, in the case of intermarriage, ancestry can’t determine the race of the children, and the biological features that they inherit from their ancestors are random and can’t determine their races, so it is usually determined by public policy decision. In that sense, there is no biological features that related to

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