Stereochemistry: Reaction Of Haloalkanes

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Stereochemistry (Reaction of Haloalkanes)
Stereoisomers are compounds having the same molecular formula but they are different in the special arrangement. Stereoisomers fall into two main categories
Geometric isomers- This is further subdivided into cis and trans isomers.
Optical Isomers
In this section, we will discuss the optical isomers and how their involvement in the reactions of haloalkanes.
Optical Isomers
Optical isomers are compounds having the same molecular formula but they differ in the manner they rotate a plane polarized light. Plane polarized light formation takes place when an ordinary light passes through a Nicol prism thereby causing diffraction and resulting in the formation of a single wavelength light. This light of the
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Optical Isomers
In this section, we will discuss the optical isomers and how their involvement in the reactions of haloalkanes.
Optical Isomers
Optical isomers are compounds having the same molecular formula but they differ in the manner they rotate a plane polarized light. Plane polarized light formation takes place when an ordinary light passes through a Nicol prism thereby causing diffraction and resulting in the formation of a single wavelength light. This light of the single wavelength is plane polarized light. The instrument that helps in the generation of plane polarized light from an ordinary light is a polarimeter.
Set-Up of Polarimeter
A source of light is set up that act as the ordinary light which then passes through the diffraction grating, it produces plane polarized light. This plane-polarized light when passes through a sample of an optically active compound; it rotates the plane polarized light in a certain
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Hence, the more the number of alkyl group present with the double bond, more is the stability of the alkene. This happens due to the process of hyperconjugation.
Example- Dehydrohalogenation of 2-Bromobutane

When alkyl halides react with nucleophiles there is a continuous competition whether the elimination or substitution reaction will occur. This mainly depends upon a certain factor which will determine what type of reaction will take place. Factors Responsible for favoring elimination/substitution Reactions are
Nature of the substrate present in the reaction- Reaction will depend upon the type of haloalkane present (primary, secondary or tertiary).
Size and strength of the base/nucleophile- If the nucleophile is highly reactive there is a possibility that the reaction taking place will be a substitution reaction (SN2). However, if the nucleophile is bulky then due to steric hindrance substation reaction is difficult. In such cases, elimination reaction takes place.
Conditions involved in reaction (solvent used in the

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