HIV Epidemic Patterns In Sub-Saharan Africa Case Study

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1. The two distinct HIV epidemic patterns in the world are located in sub-Saharan Africa and outside sub-Saharan Africa, namely the western world and majority of developing world (Pisani, 2011). The HIV epidemic pattern found outside sub-Saharan Africa tends to be more concentrated among drug injectors, gay men, and prostitutes, where the latter groups are especially affected due to practicing unsafe sex with multiple partners (Pisani, 2011). The HIV epidemic pattern found in sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be more broad among the population, affecting a larger proportion of straight people (Pisani, 2011). This could be due to more straight people having sex with multiple long-term partners, where their native cultures encourage ideas …show more content…
The three classes of anti-retroviral drugs are: entry inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors (Insel, Roth, Irwin, & Burke, 2012). Entry inhibitors work by reducing the ability of HIV to bind to receptors on CD4 T cells, this reducing the entry of HIV into those cells (Insel, Roth, Irwin, & Burke, 2012). Integrase inhibitors work by preventing the integration of HIV DNA into the host cell, thus preventing HIV from assuming control of the cell (Insel, Roth, Irwin, & Burke, 2012). Protease inhibitors work neutralizing an enzyme called HIV protease, which is needed to cut viral proteins for creating new copies of HIV (Insel, Roth, Irwin, & Burke, 2012). Hence, protease inhibitors slow down the replication process of DNA (Insel, Roth, Irwin, & Burke, …show more content…
The three stages of progression from initial HIV infection to full-blown AIDS are: the primary infection stage, the chronic asymptomatic stage, and the chronic symptomatic stage (Insel, Roth, Irwin, & Burke, 2012). During the primary infection stage, patients generally develop flu-like symptoms, and they usually do not fathom having the HIV infection (Insel, Roth, Irwin, & Burke, 2012). However, there is a sharp decrease of CD4 cells during this stage, and HIV viral particles are present in their highest amount, thus making the primary infection stage the most infectious stage (Insel, Roth, Irwin, & Burke, 2012). During the chronic asymptomatic stage (which can last from two to twenty years), patients do not experience any symptoms but are able to infect others. However, HIV continues to infect CD4 cells and multiply further, thus causing a slow decline in immunity during this stage (Insel, Roth, Irwin, & Burke, 2012). During the chronic symptomatic phase, patients start to experience various symptoms due to a serious compromise in immunity from a great loss of CD4 cells caused by increasing amounts of the HIV virus (Insel, Roth, Irwin, & Burke, 2012). This is the final stage of infection before opportunistic infections attack the body and the patient acquires AIDS (Insel, Roth, Irwin, & Burke,

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