Habermas Theory Of Social Power

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If one is to understand contemporary social life, then one has to study the history of social theory in order to make sense of today’s world. Gramsci and Habermas are both sociologists, and they both help to explain how society works and functions through power. Gramsci’s power relations of civil/ political societies and hegemony and Habermas’ model of system and lifeworld both affect social change. I will be examining how the power of civil and political societies create active consent and agreement in social groups to maintain social power. Next, I will be investigating how Gramsci’s concept of hegemony and historical bloc create social change. Lastly, I will identify how Habermas’ model of lifeworld and system uses social norms created by …show more content…
In this view, hegemony occurs when a dominant class, who are usually in small numbers, holds power over a large subordinate group (Datta 2018: 26). This means that leadership is based on the subordinates consenting to the views and ideas of the class that rules them. One of the main building blocks to achieve this consent or hegemony is to develop partnerships within the different parts of the civil society (Datta 2018: 29). For example, in a church social group, all members of society will be encouraged to attend, including the rich, poor, disabled, and minorities. These people would all be welcome to attend, voice concerns, and move towards the common goal of the church. In this way, social order among all groups would be achieved. Each of these groups may also have organic intellectuals, which will lead that particular group to be on the same side as the project or goal that all are working towards. Additionally, in society there can be a crisis of hegemony when an organic crisis occurs, which creates a historical bloc (Bates 1975 :356). In this situation, the crisis becomes apparent when people begin to not believe what their leaders are telling them. Usually, the ruling class fails the people in a large way. This could occur in a war situation, where the subordinates …show more content…
The beginning of the lifeworld starts with the birth of a person into a world that has meaning. Through communicative action, which involves talking, discussing, and agreeing during normal social interactions, the child learns about the necessary information needed to function in a real society and the child begins to develop a sense of self. As this learning process continues, the social interaction creates rules about what people should and should not do, how people interact with others in their social groups, and the implications of different psychological attachments. As this process of socialization occurs with people that are trying to assist their child to potential, the children learns to internalize the lifeworld, so they can figure things out in a reliable fashion and learn social cues and norms. (Pusey 1988: 105). In contrast to the lifeworld, the system changes the lifeworld by combining the economic and power pieces of society. However, both lifeworld and system come together and create a “tug of war” (Datta 2018: 37). The communicative process that comes from the lifeworld leads to reason and agreement of societal norms. This lifeworld gets changed by the system, which consists of money and power. The lifeworld and system affects social change by creating social norms in the real world, which get defined by the

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