Glycolysis Essay

1556 Words 7 Pages
The human body requires energy to fuel growth, development, and repair in order to sustain proper functioning and remain alive. For humans, this fuel source is food. For example, as Koletzko, Goulet, et. al. researched in infants, they found that infants born with gastroenterology diseases or disorders were unable to harvest energy from food they consumed and therefore suffered severe growth stunts and defects. The relationship between food and calories can now be established because food provides the calories the body needs to carry out living processing through the process of metabolism. There are many metabolic pathways in each cell that different types of foods go through. However, all of these pathways oxidize the food source and yield …show more content…
Glycolysis does not require the presence of oxygen and occurs in all living cells from humans to prokaryotes. Different food sources contain different types of carbohydrates so each sugar is broken down into component parts that are readily incorporated into glycolysis; thus, glycolysis is one of the main metabolic pathways of the cell. For example, if the food source contains mostly fructose, then a special pathway for just fructose is utilized by the cell. In this pathway, the fructose is converted into fructose 6-phosphate with the help of the enzyme hexokinase. The fructose 6-phosphate can then be used in glycolysis just like glucose because glucose gets turned into fructose 6-phosphate in the third step of glycolysis. Fructose is often found in synthetic sources of carbohydrates such as high fructose corn syrup. Research regarding the effects of these types of food show that there can be quicker and more drastic alterations in blood sugar from fructose metabolism causing major controversy over the effect of sugary foods during pregnancy (Renegault, Gentilli, et. al. …show more content…
During this process, an amino acid from an amino groups is transferred to an alpha ketoglutarate molecule in the liver, creating an alpha keto acid molecule and an additional amino acid. The alpha keto acid molecule can be converted into glycogen or glucose in the liver, which can be metabolized to create energy the body can use later in the processes as discussed above, where the alpha ketoglutarate molecule is the third component in the Krebs Cycle so the molecule can be directly imported into that step (Austin Community College). Therefore, proteins are macromolecule that provide energy for the human body and can support growth and development. Proteins provide the same amount of energy as carbohydrates, yielding 4 kilocalories per gram. The significance of transamination as a metabolic pathway is important to both humans and bacteria such as E. Coli because the transfer of an amino group off of an amino acid to another molecule would normally create ammonia as a byproduct, but that is not so in transamination (Wada and Snell 1961). By simply moving molecules and not converting anything, ammonia is not produced, which is lethal in human

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