Globalisation Has Increased Competition Faced by Many Enterprises. There Are Resulting Pressures to Achieve ‘World Class Standards' in People Management, Operational Methods and Service Delivery"

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Globalisation

Theodore Levitt, writing in 1983, is often credited with describing economic globalization as it is currently understood today. His original article was subject to a HBS Colloquium in 2003; the area of particular interest being the dissolution of national and regional preference, and the requirement for business enterprises (and those employed within them) to understand the difference between multinational and global corporations and activities; in the former an entity regards each geographic area as distinct and adjusts its prices and products accordingly, while globalization would indicate products, prices and services being targeted and delivered in a more uniform and encompassing manner (Levitt 1983). This approach
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International Leadership & Management

A series of individual case studies looked at the influence of Japanese management techniques on British companies in the 1990s identified several key changes that occurred, either due to take-overs by, or strategic alliances with, Japanese firms. It examined the changes that were experienced by all levels of the involved organisations, and commented on the striking differences in managerial style that evolved; the most common theme being the increased feelings of democracy and inclusion felt by all members of the workforce, while not diluting the responsibility or authority of management (Hasegawa 2001). These changes, however, did not come without their challenges, with some Trade Unions in particular resenting the direct interface created between those they represented and the firm's management, but they were achieved by an international management team that understood the need for true transnational leadership. In order to achieve this level of competence, human resource managers must set about designing a framework that both encourages the new paradigm, while also making the organisation attractive to those that are already functioning well within it. The need for continued education, on both business and cultural issues, the need to become adept at simultaneous interaction, rather than the more traditional model of

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