Giddens: A Short Summary And Analysis

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Giddens conceptualises structure as rules and resources used by interaction. Rules are generalisable procedures and methodologies that reflexive agents possess in their implicit stocks of knowledge and that they use as methods for action in social systems. These rules of structure disclose a number of important properties: they are implicitly known; informal; widely sanctioned; frequently invoked and used in conversations, interaction rituals, and daily routines. Structure also involves the use of resources that are the material equipment and organisational capacities of actors to get things done. Rules and resources are transformational in that they can be created, changed, and recombined into different forms; also, they are mediating in …show more content…
These actions, can lead, to the reformation of the structure, which will, affect future action. Therefore, there is a close interrelationship between structure and agency. Giddens’ uses a metaphor for this which is that rather than being distinct phenomena structure and agency, are in fact two sides of the same coin. As such, we have a conception of the mutual constitution of structure and agency. This emphasises reflexivity, and assumes a large amount of self-awareness on the part of the actor, but also allows for the influence of structures and awareness of emplacement (Aston, …show more content…
At the other end, there is an importance on the individual, structures are seen as transient; they are relative and secondary to agency. These extremes can be characterised as systems without actors in the case of the former, and actors without systems in the case of the latter. Giddens ' explains the relationship between theses two extremes by using his structuration that: provides an account of human agency which recognises that human beings are purposive actors, who basically all the time know what they are doing and why. At the same time the actions of each individual are implanted in social contexts 'stretching away ' from their activities and which causally influence their nature. Grasping the recursive nature of social practices - the duality of structure – is according to Giddens, the key to achieving this (Aston, 2013).

Giddens suggests systems, influence people’s actions, but in turn, structures continue to exist only if they are supported by people’s repeated actions. Giddens concept of the duality of structure combines agency and structure into one instead of seeing them as a dualism that consists of two separate although connected phenomena (Aston,

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