Geology Essay examples

5223 Words Dec 18th, 2015 21 Pages
Final Exam Review material: Physical Geology (GEOL 1114) 1. Explain the Uniformitarianism. The birth of Modern Geology, the physical, chemical and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geologic past
2. What are the spheres of the Earth system? Atmosphere, Geosphere, Biosphere, and Hydrosphere
3. What are the mechanical and compositional layers of the Earth’s interior? Compositional: Crust, Mantle, Core. Mechanical: Lithosphere & Athsenosphere
4. Know the prominent features of the continents and the ocean floor?
5. Define tectonic plate and which layers of the Earth’s interior they contain. Earths outer layer divided into several plates, composed of the lithosphere which is made up of the crust and
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What are the components of magma?
Liquid portion=melt
Solid part if any composed of silicate mineral
Volatiles = dissolved gases in the melt including water vapor(H2O) carbon dioxide(C2O) and sulfur dioxide(S2O)
12. Define texture The size, shape, and distribution of the particles that collectively constitute a rock
13. Know the difference between intrusive and extrusive rocks Extrusive(volcanic) rocks are formed from lava AKA magma at the surface while Intrusive(Plutonic) rocks are formed from magma at depths
14. Know the different types igneous textures
Aphanitic(fine grainend): rapid rate of cooling may contain vesicles(gas bubbles)
Phaneritic(coarse grained): slow cooling contains large crystals
Porphyritic: minerals form at different temperatures, large crystals(phenocrysts) embedded in a matrix of smaller crystals (groundmass)
Glassy: very rapid cooling rocks called obsidian
Pyroclastic: Fragmental appearance due to violent volcanic eruptions look similar to sedimentary rock
Pegmatic: exceptionally coarse grained
Vesicular: extrusive rock containing voids left by gas bubbles
15. Know the common silicate and non-silicate minerals
Dark (or ferromagnesian)

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