GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS)
AND TERRORIST ATTACKS OF OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING AND THE WORLD TRADE CENTER
School of Graduate Studies
Of Tiffin University
In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the graduate course
Geographic Information Systems
In the School of Criminal Justice
Summer Quarter 2006
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
And Terrorist Attacks Of Oklahoma City Bombing And The World Trade Center
History of GIS
GIS is a way of organizing large amounts of geographic information. It is not a tool, a software, a hardware or a specific image; it is a concept--a way of understanding maps (http://cnx.org/content/m13693/latest).
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html). Put simply, GIS puts together layers of information about a place to give one a better understanding of that place. What layers of information are combine depends on it's intended purposefinding the best location for a new store, analyzing environmental damage, viewing similar crimes in a city to detect a pattern, and so on (http://www.nww.usace.army.mil/gis/definition. html). GIS has developed from Cro-Magnon hunters pictures on the walls of caves (http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/#history) to one of layering a multitude of information into computerized digital maps (http://envstudies. brown.edu/Thesis/2001/james/gishistory.html). In retrospect, with the advent of computer technology, GIS has developed from drawings on the wall of a cave to "a computer system capable of capturing, storing, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information; that is, data identified according to location" (http://www.nww.usace.army.mil/gis). The development of technology has given us the ability to respond to crisis situations in a more organized, safe and professional manner with common goals.
Effect of GIS in the Aftermath of Terrorism
GIS and Remote Sensing (Satellite, Aerial Photography and Sensors) enables the decision making process to use fewer personnel and provide a sound basis for action in the aftermath of terrorism