Genetic Engineering The Human Genome Essay

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Genetically Engineering the Human Genome
Genetically modifying the human genome, also known as the complete set of genetic material, is now more than just science fiction. After 25 years of collecting and analyzing scientific research, altering the human genome is becoming a concrete reality (Yu-Wai-Man 1322). Genetically modifying the human genome is deliberately altering human genes for the purpose of producing offspring with those genetic changes. Majority of the research being conducted for genetically modifying the human genome is being conducted on mice. Likewise, using mice to study genetic engineering is a “powerful method for studying gene function and creating animal models of human diseases” (Liu, Xie, Gui, Du 217). Understanding
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One of the beginning procedures for genetic engineering is pronuclear microinjection. Pronuclear microinjection is a technique that is “intrinsically simple, although it requires expensive equipment and high levels of skill” (Smith 78). The discovery of pronuclear microinjection was attributed to Dr. Jon Gordon, as he was the one that “demonstrated that exogenous, or foreign, DNA could be introduced into the genome simply by the physical injection of a solution of cloned DNA into a fertilized egg” (Smith 77). Furthermore, the first step in the procedure of pronuclear microinjection is loading a glass needle with foreign DNA (Smith 78). Secondly, using a microscope, the loaded glass needle is “guided through the cytoplasm” towards a fertilized egg (Smith 78). The next step includes injecting a nanoliter, one billionth of a liter, of the DNA solution into the fertilized egg, which distributes on average “two hundred DNA molecules” into the nucleus of the zygote (Smith 78). Finally, all of “microinjected eggs are implanted” into the fallopian tube of a foster mother where they could perhaps “develop into a viable individual” (Liu, et al. 217). In order for this technique to be executed efficiently, the DNA solution that is injected into the fertilized egg must …show more content…
To genetically modify the human genome means to change the DNA in humans and offspring, thus creating genetically modified human beings. Understanding how genetic engineering has evolved and how it will be used in the future are important aspects to grasp in order to understand this approach to modify the human genome. The technology to change human DNA is in reach, however, many ethical and moral issues stop it from being practiced. In continuation, there is considerable debate on the issue of genetic engineering and it is important that the public is aware of the universal concerns. Overall, genetically engineering the human genome is the reality of our

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