Genetic Diagnosis : Pre Implantation Diagnosis Essay
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is the process which involves the testing of embryos which have been produced through the process of In vitro fertilisation (IVF), for a range of genetic disorders. It can test for recessive sex linked disorders such as Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Dominant sex linked disorders such as incontinentia pigmenti, single gene disorders such as sickle cell anaemia and cystic fibrosis, as well as chromosomal disorders such as Anueploidy, (chromosomal insertion or deletion.)In the process of PGD a woman undergoes IVF treatment where they are given drugs to produce many eggs, which are then put into a dish where they are fertilised by the adding of sperm. When the embryo is three days old a fine laser biopsy creates a hole in the outer layer of the embryo. The cells divide into trophoblasts which are eventually secreted from the embryo and the cells are then analysed in either the process of PCR, FISH or CGH. An embryo can be tested for a single gene disorder by multiplex PCR: for chromosomal abnormalities through Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH). Embryos which are affected by the condition are discarded, and unaffected ones are a used according to the parents desires.
In vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
IVF is the most effective form of assisted reproductive technology. It involves a complex series of procedures in which matured eggs are…