Essay General Management

5788 Words Jun 12th, 2014 24 Pages
several sections.

Table 15-1 Elements of Organizational Structure
15.2
What are the major elements of an organizational structure?
WORK SPECIALIZATION.
Work specialization is the way in which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs. In some organizations, this categorization is referred to as a company’s division of labor. How many tasks does any one employee perform? To some degree, work specialization is a never-ending trade-off among productivity, flexibility, and worker motivation. Take an assembly line worker at Ford as an example. Henry Ford was perhaps the earliest (and clearly most well-known) believer in high degrees of work specialization. He divided tasks among his manufacturing employees to such a degree
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Aetna, the Hartford, Connecticut–based health insurer, publishes more than 1,300 different job titles, each of which has its own list of the competencies that employees in those jobs must perform.5

Modern Times (1932), starring Charlie Chaplin, ridiculed work specialization and the treating of employees as machines. Have things changed since then?
Organizations may also struggle with employee job satisfaction when they make jobs highly specialized. If you recall from Chapter 4 on Job Satisfaction, we discussed five core characteristics of jobs that significantly affect satisfaction. One of those characteristics was variety, or the degree to which the job requires a number of different activities involving a number of different skills and talents.6 Employees tend to be more satisfied with jobs that require them to perform a number of different kinds of activities. Even though you might be very efficient and productive performing a job with only one task, how happy would you be to perform that job on a daily basis? One of the most famous films in early motion picture history was Modern Times, a film in which Charlie Chaplin was relegated to performing the same task over and over, very quickly. The movie ridiculed work specialization and the trend of treating employees as machines.
CHAIN OF COMMAND.
The chain of command within an organization essentially answers the question “Who reports to whom?” Every employee in a

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