Gene Therapy And Delivery Of Cargo Essay

1698 Words Aug 14th, 2015 null Page
Cell penetrating peptides are proteins or peptides that typically consist of 5-30 amino acids. These peptides are unique in that they are able to cross cell membranes and other barriers throughout the body such as the blood brain barrier, intestinal and nasal mucosa, and even skin. Using CPPs, scientists are now able to explore their potential as a means of transporting cargo into cells and across bio barriers. With their ease of preparation and generally nontoxic nature, CPPs have gained a lot of popularity and expanded research. Prior to the first CPP being discovered in 1988, gene therapy and delivery of cargo such as drugs, peptides and proteins, DNA, RNA, oligonucleotides, liposomes, nanoparticles, quantum dots, etc. were susceptible to enzymatic degradation and had low levels of cell entry (Koren and Torchilin, Farkhani et al., Bolhassani et al.). Trans-Activator of Transcription (TAT) protein opened up the field of CPPs by demonstrating how a protein derived from HIV-1 could facilitate cell entry (Koren and Torchilin, Farkhani et al., Bechara and Sagan, Shi et al.). From there the minimal TAT peptide sequence required for cell entry was deduced in 1997 by Vives et al. (Koren and Torchilin, Farkhani et al.). As research continued another CPP, penetratin (pAntp), was discovered from the Drosphila Antennapedia homeodomain followed by many more including VP22, transportan, model amphipathic peptide (MAP), etc. (Koren and Torchilin, Bechara and Sagan, Shi et al.)…

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