Francium Essay

1287 Words Sep 6th, 2013 6 Pages
Science report

By: Anthony white jnr

Francium (pronounced FRAN-see-em;formerly known as eka- caesium and actinitium K) is a chemical element that has the symbol Fr and atomic number 87. It is the second rarest naturally occurring elements after astatine. Francium is a highly radioactive metal that decays into astatine, radium and radon. As an alkali metal, it has one valence electron.

Francium was discovered by Marguerite Perey in France (from which the element takes its name) in 1939. It was the last element discovered in nature, rather than being man made.
Outside the laboratory, francium is very rare, with trace amounts found in uranium and thorium ores, where the isotope francium-223 continually forms
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The other three scientist who thought that the discovered the element were Gerald
J.Fdruce (England), Fred Allison (U.S.A) and Horia Hulubei (Romania). The sole discoverer was
Marguerite Perey of the Curie Institute in Paris, France. She discovered the element when she purified a sample of actinium-227.

Francium in Water
When you add a small amount of francium to water a huge explosion will happen. This is because it is a very weak radioactive element. The picture below shows the reaction.

Francium-223 is the result of the alpha decay of actinium-227 and can be found in trace amounts in uranium and thorium minerals.
Neutral francium atoms can be trapped in the MOT using a magnetic field and laser beams.
Francium can be synthesized in the nuclear reaction:
197Au + 18O → 210Fr + 5 n
This process, developed by Stony Brook Physics, yields francium atoms with masses of 209,
210, and 211, which are then isolated by the magnetic-optical trap (MOT). The production rate of a particular isotope depends on the energy of the oxygen beam. An 18O beam from the
Stony Brook creates 210Fr in the gold target with the nuclear reaction 197Au + 18O =
210Fr + 5n. The production required some time to develop and understand. It was critical to operate the gold target very close to its melting point and to make sure

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