Constructivism is a theory which is based on observation that emphasize learning is an active and through constructive process. It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences (Bereiter, 1994). The teacher should encourage students to use active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving) to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how they are understanding. Authentic tasks, experiences, collaboration, and assessment are among other important factors in this view of learning. ). According to constructivist learning theory, the four aspects of constructivist lessons include: learners construct their own meaning, new learning builds on prior knowledge, learning is enhanced by social interaction and meaningful learning develops through "authentic" tasks (Good & Brophy, 2003). Mvududu and Thiel Burgess (2012) state that constructivism is an approach to probe for children’s level of understanding and it can increases and changes to higher level thinking.
Cook (1992) promotes the use of negotiation in the curriculum. When learners negotiate they will …show more content…
According to Bandura’s Social Learning theory posits that people learn from one another through observation, imitation, and modelling. Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Bandura (1977) states: "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do.
Social learning theories can be broadly understood as a social behavioral approach that emphasizes the “reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral and environmental determinants” of human behavior (Bandura,