Relationship Between Fluoride And Oral Health

This paper explores multiple published articles that have reported results from research conducted case studies displaying the relationship between fluoride and oral health when discussing the fluoride concentration within a public water system. These articles, however, are quite similar in their findings, yet differ in the location the study was conducted in and age groups that were focused on. This paper examines Banóczy (2013), Peterson (2015), as well as O’Sullivan & O’Connell’s (2015) research to fully understand the relationship of fluoridation within public water systems in a discussion of the effects on oral health of their case study subjects.
Keywords: fluoride, oral health, public water system

Implementation of Water Fluoridation
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Fluoride concentration fluctuates depending on climate and location. This means different locations throughout the world have differing concentrations fluoride in their water. For example, concentrations in freshwater are typically low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/L, whereas seawater containing 1.2 to 1.5 mg/L. Other parts of the world, such as East Africa and India, have fluoride levels in groundwater that may exceed 3 mg/L (Botchey, 2015, pg.47). High levels of concentration may lead to potential negative effects on your dental health. Dental and skeletal fluorosis can be side effects of water fluoridation, however both of these are rare. Dental fluorosis is described as pitting and staining of teeth in children mainly, while skeletal fluorosis can lead to a higher risk of bone fractures. Both of these stem from exceeding levels of fluoride that can cause vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, and possibly seizures. “One of the debated concerns regarding community water fluoridation is that the hydrofluorosilicic acid used to fluoridate water contains arsenic, and this poses a health risk to the population.” This study was undertaken to determine if fluoridation is a contributor to the concentration of arsenic in drinking water. In addition, we wanted to estimate the amount of …show more content…
In relation to the association between the availability of fluoridated water supply among local households and the probability of an individual having all their own teeth, we estimate an average marginal effect of 4.7% points for those living in areas that are completely fluoridated versus those living areas where nobody has a fluoridated water supply (O’Sullivan & O’Connell, 2015, pg. 62-63). However, an increase in hip fractures has been observed in a few studies of fluoridated communities, but these group observations do not prove whether water fluoridation is a risk factor to individuals. There are now over a million children receiving fluoridated milk. The effectiveness of milk fluoridation in preventing dental caries is supported by about 18 clinical studies reported in numerous papers. Of these, nine demonstrated caries prevention in primary teeth and 12 in the permanent dentition showed cavity reductions, and evaluations of the several community programmes pointed to the feasibility of the method under real life conditions. In order to protect the permanent molar teeth, consumption of fluoridated milk is necessary during and after their eruption too. (Banóczy, 2013,

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