Flocculation & Coagulation Processes in the Production of Potable Water

14354 Words Jul 1st, 2014 58 Pages
SEPERATION PROCESSES II
DESIGN PROJECT

COAGULATION & FLOCCULATION PROCESSES IN THE PRODUCTION
OF POTABLE WATER

SUBMISSION DATE:
14 August 2012

COURSE COORDINATOR :
Dr. Netatollah Rahmanian

GROUP MEMBERS’ NAMES:
Derek Lai Chai Zern 14233
Derek Lai Chai Zern 14233
Sean Suraj Jeremiah 14286
Nabila Syahira Bt Azizuddin 14295
Hazwan Farid B Muhammad Puzi 14382
Karrthik S/O Subramaniam 15450
Kiveeyashini D/O Govindasamy 17252

INTRODUCTION

Human settlements have always been centred around sources of clean drinking water. As the population increases and the quality of fresh water declines, it has become an engineering challenge to supply sufficient potable water to the meet demands.
Of the
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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION 3 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF WATER TREATMENT 9 Ancient Water Treatment 9 Discovery of Microorganisms 9 Cholera and Chlorination 9 Softening and Ion Exchange 10 First Government Regulations 10 FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES IN WATER TREATMENT 12 Aeration 12 Sedimentation 13 Filtration 15 Disinfection 17 COAGULATION THEORY 20 Stability Of Particulates 20 Particulate Characteristic 21 Mechanisms of Stability 21 Origin of the Double Layer 22 Mechanisms of Destabilization 23 Chemistry Of Coagulation 26 Inorganic Coagulants 28 Organic coagulants 30 Types of Polymers 30 Mechanism of Action 31 Charge Neutralization 31 Polymer Bridging 32 Kinetics of Particulate Aggregation 32 COAGULATION PRACTICE 33 Action of alum and iron salts 33 Solubility of metal salts 34 Application of metal salts in water treatment 35 Coagulant aids 37 Flocculant aids 37 Coagulant reduction through use of ozonation 38 Coagulant reduction through use of ion exchange resins 39 MIXING THEORY AND PRACTICE 41 Introduction to turbulence 41 Mixing and scale of turbulence 42 Uniformity of blending 43 FLOCCULATION THEORY 46 Microscale Flocculation 46 Macroscale Flocculation 47 Differential Settling 47 Rate of Particle Collision 48 Collision Frequency Function 49 Overall Rate of Particle Collision

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