Flip Flop Case Study

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1.1 Memory and its relevance to D flip flop
Memory is an electronic data storage device which is usually implemented on a semiconductor based integrated circuit. The basic operations accomplished by a memory chip are READ in which the data contents of a memory is read out and WRITE in which data is stored in a memory. Each bit of information bits is stored in memory cell consisting of one or more transistors. The most basic such memory unit which stores 1 bit of data is the D flip flop.
High performance IC circuits are the need of the day, which require very high memory to support the circuit. With the micro-miniaturization of the circuits, multiple functionalities may be introduced on a small IC board. Supporting multiple functionalities requires
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However in the case of dynamic flip flop the output state needs to be continually refreshed by the clock for the state to be retained. If a high speed clock is not provided the output state changes because of the charge discharge due to leakage current. The leakage of charge maybe due to sub-threshold current, reverse saturation current etc., Sometimes, this result in the flip flop operating in the forbidden region and the chip receives static current which may result in the damage of the chip. However the need for the clock to frequently refresh the dynamic circuit results in more power …show more content…
The above factors have been researched in the literature survey while choosing the single edge triggered vs. double edge triggered flip flop, the rise time and fall time that must be allocated to the input waveform to get a good output from the D flip flop.
1.4 MOTIVATION FOR PROJECT
Electronic gadgets which are made to be used with minimum human invention and with multiple functionalities occupying minimum area (smart gadgets such as smart phones, smart cars with a lot of self correcting abilities, etc.,) are in huge demand today. Having multiple functionality demands a proportional increase in the memory which can be humongous in some cases. The D flip flop is the basic unit of memory storage. Hence optimization of the D flip flop impacts the IC circuit as a whole. Thus in cases where IC circuits are using huge memory storage systems the impact of the D flip flop optimization is considerable.
1.5 Problem statement To optimize a D flip flop implemented using GDI technique with gate clocking and making alterations in the schematic to obtain an optimal circuit to the best extent

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