Microbes are those microscopic organisms that can cause diseases in the human body. These microbes migrate with locomotive organelles called FLAGELLA, a very vigorous nanomotor that is highly conserved across bacterial species. Flagella allow the microbes to move towards favourable environments. Further studies on flagella has revealed that it not only serves the purpose of locomotion but also plays a very crucial role in bacterial pathogenicity(14).
A flagella has mainly three parts: The basal body, Hook and filament. The basal body acts as a rotary motor while the hook is the universal joint and the filament acts as helical propeller(7). The flagella is made up of nearly 50 proteins. These form the export apparatus consisting …show more content…
It is cause of hospital acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infections, blood stream infection, surgical site infections(22). Leading cause of respiratory morbidity and mortility in patients with cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monomeric flagellin of flagella helps in adhesion followed by internalization. Flagella has added structural feature of being glycosylated.
Helicobacter pyroli: gram negative, micro aerophillic, spiral shaped bacteria, colonizes human stomach. It is cause of common infections, chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer , persistently colonizing the gastric mucosa of over 50% global population. It is a significant risk factor of gastric cancer(23). It is classified as group 1 carcinogen by WHO. Non motile mutants lacking flagella are unable to establish persistent infection in animal models. Consists of 2-6 unipolar flagella.Dysfunction of flagellar biogenesis have a strong impact on motility and infection.
Vibrio cholerae: gram negative aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacillus. Hallmark of the disease , cholera, is profuse secretary diarrhea. Biofilms are likely a form in which clinically relevant V.cholerae is taken up by humans, providing a concentrated infective dose. It has single polar flagellum(monotrichous) covered with sheath that is contiguous , also acts as mechanosensor, known to contribute to virulence of the