Features Of Teacher Professionalism

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Teacher professionalism, according to Bartley and Diamond (2010), refers to a kind of ‘professional activities’ consists of ‘qualifications, standards and accountabilities’ (p.4). It also contains several other broader values, including ‘furthering individual and social development, fulfilment and emancipation’ (ibid, p.4). The initial features that covered to term professionalism, according to Millerson (1964), include:
• the use of skills based on theoretical knowledge
• education and training in those skills certified by examination
• a code of professional conduct oriented toward the ‘public good’
• a powerful professional organisation

(cited in Whitty, 2006, p.2)

Teachers who behave under the guidance of these initial concepts
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What is the “Extended Professionalism”
Jongmans et al. (1998) claimed that teachers with extended professionalism tend to be more ‘other-concerned’ (p.465), which are the concerns outside classroom teaching that has been defined by Hoyle (1980) as ‘locating one’s classroom teaching in a broader educational context’ (p.43). It stretched teachers’ roles from basic professionalism in classroom teaching to a multiple role not only in teaching but also in taking part in the activities or dealing with issues outside teaching (Hoyle, 1980).

Johnson and Maclean (2008) elaborated the reason for the change of teachers’ professionalism, which was shaped by ‘a combination of “new right” and “New Labour”’ (p.12). The market-oriented educational reform re-shaped the education as a commodity purchasing by students, especially by their parents, who were regarded as the consumer of the educational product. This market-oriented tendency strengthened the competition among schools, thus the high-qualified educational outcomes and personalised educational features were what to attract more students and their parents. Those were the cause for the re-establishment of teachers’ professionalism by obeying the policy stipulation and new curriculum directives (ibid, 2008). Under such circumstances, teachers’ roles were no longer limited within their classroom teaching, but spread to other aspects such as taking care of individual pupils, taking part in the school
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Sockett (1996) supported it by stating that teachers’ extended professionalism disputed teachers with more responsibilities and authorities to be involved in other issues in schools, thus was beneficial in breaking down their divisions with school principals and other administrators. He described such division as that ‘education researchers are largely locked up in ivory towers administrators in office, and teachers in classroom’ (p.25). In this situation, those administrators were isolated from classroom practice due to the bureaucratic control of the educational system, while teachers were merely strained in their classrooms with less chance to express their opinion about teaching realities (ibid, 1996). Teachers are the direct contactor with students, who are more familiar with their needs and expectations, and have sufficient experience about what to teach and how to teach, while administrators only work on the related policies or principles by pure imagination or by their own beliefs. Therefore, teachers’ extended professionalism will break down such divisions, and eventually, educational efficiency of a particular institution can be

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