Fatwas Analysis

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The Encyclopedia of Modern Middle East and North Africa defines fatwas as “the legal judgement or learned interpretation that a qualified jurist (mufti) can give on issues pertaining to the shari’a (Islamic law).” Fatwas are able to be issued by anyone trained in Islamic law, and is said to have been issued in their millions since early Islam, usually concerning the various aspects of “individual life, social norms, religion, war, peace, jihad, and politics.” (Weimann 2011, 766) Fatwas can be binding for Shias and fundamentalist or radical Sunnis, depending on their relation to the issuer (Schmuel Bar 2006).
Terror fatwas, synonymous with jihadi fatwas, are fatwas that promote jihad, violence and martyrdom, sanction targets, and even permit
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Terrorism is either domestic or international. Domestic terrorism is when the attack takes place in the venue country where the perpetrators and victims are from; international terrorism is when an attack takes place in “the venue country [which] concerns perpetrators or victims from another country.” (Sandler 2014, 3; 5). International terrorism is said to have started in 1968 when Palestinian terrorist groups carried out a string of airplane hijackings (Hoffman 2006), and had been largely comprised of nationalist and radical revolutionaries from the late 1960s until the late 1980s (Rapoport 2004). Moreover, a significant shift occurred in terrorism in the …show more content…
In 1968, as he points out, none of the eleven identifiable terrorist groups operating in that year were religious. It was not until 1980 that religious terrorist groups made their first appearances (Hoffman 2006, 85) By 1994, 16 out of 49 known terrorist groups were identified as being religious, and merely a year later, it increased to 26 out of 56 terrorist organizations, jumping from a third of terrorist groups to almost a half (Hoffman 2006, 86). For the four waves of international terrorism, David Rapooprt had labelled the last wave as being religiously motivated, with Islam being at the “heart of the wave.” (Rapoport 2006, 61) Hoffman (2006, 85) attributes this shift to religious terrorism as having been caused by the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran; however, Rapoport (2006, 61) claims that the soviet military involvement in Afghanistan played an integral role as

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