Factors That Affect The Allele Frequency Essay

1091 Words Oct 7th, 2016 5 Pages
Introduction
Microevolution is the change in the allele frequency in a population over generations, and there are three mechanisms that can cause the allele frequency to change. One is natural selection, the process in which the individuals with favorable inherited traits in an environment are more likely to survive and reproduce. This results in specific alleles being inherited in greater proportions in the next generations. The next mechanism is genetic drift, which describes how allele frequencies vary each generation unpredictably. Genetic drift is significant in small populations and can lead to the loss of genetic variation. The last mechanism is gene flow, which is the movement of alleles between populations. This tends to lead to a loss of genetic variation as well (Reece et al. 2014).
The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to see whether a population is evolving. The direct observations can be compared to the null hypothesis so see whether or not a certain trait is changing in a population. The equation for a gene with two alleles is: p²+2pq+q²=1 Where p and q are the different frequencies of the alleles.
The equation, however, only works when genotype frequencies remain the same each generation, which suggests that there is no evolutionary change occurring in a population. For a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the following conditions for a gene must be met; no mutations occurring, random mating must occur between individuals of the population, no…

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